Halifax Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" includes various pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the nerves and muscles responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild like the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, while those specializing physicians in this particular field are referred to as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this particular area can also be known as: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are numerous classifications utilized for the various respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of associated signs and symptoms, or based on the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Several examples consist of: acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis.
Allergic reactions are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is caused by the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods could comprise lemon, radish, sea foods like for example some prawns and fatty fish, peanuts, bananas, pomegranates, ice creams and dairy, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Climate could likewise affect various people as sandy and dusty weather conditions during summertime may make the air quality poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways comprising the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it more difficult to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD's like for instance asthma and different obstructive lung diseases, the airways have become damaged and allow them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases result in increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or also referred to as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are normally divided into either an upper respiratory tract infection or a lower respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract specific organs could consist of pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection would typically be caused by Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia across the globe. Different viruses and fungi can lead to pneumonia too, for instance pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases include emphysema and mesothelioma. A pleural effusion is a build up of fluid within the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations like for instance cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, as the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may even take place from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and other conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura that helps to cover the lungs, where air is allowed inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the heart and blood vessels, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary circulation are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Various examples include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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